Hawkmoths of  Brazil  by Alan Martin

Home Keys Photo gallery Pinned specimens General Information Appendices


Most species names, subspecies and synonyms used in this website have been taken from Kitching & Cadiou (2000) but extensive reference has also been made to the STI website to ensure that the latest changes and corrections have been included. In order to be consistent across all the species, wherever possible the original description is taken from the STI website and the geographic location where the type specimen (holotype) was collected is either taken from STI or from Rothschild & Jordan (1903). Where common names have been included they have been taken from a variety of publications including the Silkmoths website (www.silkmoths.bizland.com). The forewing lengths are from measurements of specimens in the National Museum of Rio and from the Natural History Museum in London, and represent the distance from the base of the forewing to the apex.

The identification notes in the Keys are not intended to be comprehensive but draw attention to the most notable field characteristics that can be used to separate the species described. The terminology used is explained in the diagram below. The photographs of pinned specimens are not to scale and the size can be a very important factor in identification, so reference should be made to the forewing length included in the Keys. It should also be noted that museum specimens fade with time and some colours such as green are particularly prone to fading. Fading does also occur on live specimens so there can be noticeable colour differences between newly emerged and older specimens. Most of the photographs of live specimens show the normal resting position and these photographs should be particularly useful for enthusiasts who wish to identify the moths without harming them, although in many cases some manipulation to expose the hindwing pattern and colours will be necessary.